четвртак, 17. август 2017.

FC Skonto Riga

           (source: Skonto official/ izvor: Skonto official)

FC Skonto Riga 

Latvian football is not particularly famous around the world. But we cannot say the same thing about Skonto football club from Riga inscribed in the football encyclopedia as a world record holder by the number of titles won repeatedly. The team from the capital of this Baltic country, was a champion of his country, continuously from 1991 to 2004, 14 times in total.
Officially, Skonto football club was founded in 1991. However, the history of the club began in 1988 when coach Marks Zahodins was assigned to gather a student football team in Riga that will represent the USSR within the Universiade. After the Universiade was over, it was decided that the team would continue to work with the goal of creating players capable of playing in the Latvian football league within the USSR.
When the players grew older, they were not ready enough for such a competition. This structure held together thanks to the invitation by the State University of Physical Education in Latvia, in 1990 to participate in the reherseral Baltic championship after some states of the USSR had already become independent. There were 16 clubs that participated in the championship (8 from Lithuania, 6 from Latvia, one from Estonia and Russia). A Riga team participated as a university team under the name Daugava LVFKI. This name was given by the river Daugava (Dvina) that flows into the Baltic Sea near the capital of Riga.
In 1991, the team changed the name once again, this time after  the sponsor Forums Riga, because in other way the team could not function having in mind that it got out of the university framework. Under this name, the team finally started the competition in the Latvian football league within the USSR. In this competition, that ended after Latvia took the opportunity to secede from the USSR and regain its independence on August 21, 1991. Riga Forum team won the first place and became the first champion of Latvia since the country's re-independence. This championship was held under a strange system of competitions in which competed more than 20 clubs.
Forums immediately joined to the newly formed league of the independent state of Latvia, and in December 1991 the club was officially formed under the name Skonto. The name was acquired by the newly founded company Skonto group, which mainly deals with construction work. The club's president became Guatis Indriksons, a member of the Skonto group and a former KGB official. This businessman and sports worker five years later became the president of the Latvian Football Association. During his mandate as chairman of the club, Indriksons became the owner of 90 percent of the club's shares.
In the newly formed championship, footballers Marx Zahodins won the first place after playing against the FC RAF team, as both teams at the end of the regular part of the championship had the same number of points. Zahodins' place on the position of coach was taken in 1992 by Alexander Starkovs who won with Skonto the 12th Championship title and 6 times the National Cup, after which the trophy coach took over the Moscow Spartak.
In the period of domination, Skonto ''gave birth'' to many football players, and footballers who had emerged in this soccer team formed the backbone of the Latvian national team that participated in the 2004 European Championship in Portugal. In 2004, a series of Skonta's championship titles were interrupted by the football club Metalurgs from Liepaja.
His, what will appear later to be, the last title of the championship Skonto won in 2010. After that, the chairman Guatis Indriksons sold the club to Chechnya businessman Bislan Abdulmuslimov, but he remained the president of the club until 2012. One year after the club was sold, Indriksons became director of Skonto group, and the Skonto football club was resold, this time to an offshore company Tremova, registered in Cyprus. However, the new owner did not meet expectations regarding the investment, and the club recorded losses. In 2011, due to unpaid loan installments, Skonta stadium management was taken over the company for the restructuring AS Revert.
The fall of Skonto from Riga begins in 2012 when the law on the prevention of conflict of interest in performing the public functions came to force, which was adopted by the Latvian Parliament on a major insistence on the EU. Thus, Indriksons was forced to resign to the club chair as he was also serving as president of the Latvian Football Association, and by law it was no longer allowed. That way, Skonto football club was left without its main operative.
That same year, Skonto won his last trophy of the National cup, defeating its big debtors in the final, Metalurgs from Lieoajas. In 2013, almost all sponsors left the club and Skonto was hit by a major financial crisis. Players were not paid salaries and premiums. Some of them did not have the patience, so they asked for their earned money on court.
The following year, the club was disqualified from European competitions even though they were placed in qualifications for the UEFA Europa League, by taking second place in the championship. Unlike UEFA, the Latvian Football Association, led by Indrikson, allowed Skonto players, one day before the start of the championship, to compete in the first league. This season was very painful for Skonto. Due to unpaid obligations, first 3 points were denied to them, so that later the penalty was reduced to 2 points. Then 4 more points were taken away for their failure to fulfill their obligations. By the end of the championship the club somehow managed to regulate its financial obligations and the team managed to take the 2nd place in the championship. The alliance seems to have tried everything to revive the club...
In 2015, the club management somehow provided a license to participate in the Europa League and the team again took the 2nd place in the championship. But because of the continuation of financial problems, Skonto, by decision of the football association, was thrown into the second league. The next season, the Reds from Riga, for the first time since their establishment, played a bush-league football. Most of the players left the club in the meantime. And the club barely managed to win the 8th place in the second league.
Due to large debts, a bankruptcy procedure was proposed to the Riga team. The alliance did not give a permition to Skonto for competition in the second league and the club ceased to exist. Skonto football club has somehow continued working in cooperation with the PTU football center, but through the youth academy.
In the first championship of Latvia from the renewed independence in 1992, 12 clubs participated. None of these clubs are functioning anymore. At Skonta's stadium now performs football club Riga, founded in 2014.
My personal opinion is that the Skonto football club has returned to its original form, the form it has created, which is working with young players and a competition through a football academy.
Skonto from Riga was champion of Latvia 15 times in total, and 8 times won the national cup. Its best result in the European competition Skonto achieved in the 1999/00 in qualifications for the Champions League, where in the third round of qualifications they were defeated by London 0: 0 and 0: 3 before eliminating Romania's champion Rapid from Bucharest. Their participation in European competitions mostly ended in the first or second round of qualifications.
The most famous football players who played in the club are: Former Arsenal player Igor Stepanovs, Latvia's record-keeper by the number of games Vitalij Astafjevs, Latvia's top scorer of the club Mihails Miholaps, Maris Verpakovskis's record-breaking goalkeeper, Marians Pahars, former Southampton footballer, record-keeper for the club and deputy of the Latvian Parliament Mihails Zemlinskis...

Forums Riga 1991.
(source: Skonto official/ izvor: Skonto official)

Skonto 1992.
(source: Skonto official/ izvor: Skonto official)
Skonto 2010.
(source: Skonto official/ izvor: Skonto official)

 FK Skonto Riga 

Nije letonski fudbal nešto naročito poznat širom sveta. Ali je zato fudbalski klub Skonto iz Rige upisan u fudbalsku enciklopediju kao svetski rekorder po broju uzastopno osvojenih titula. Čak 14 puta je tim, iz glavnog grada ove Baltičke zemlje, bio šampion svoje zemlje, neprekidno od 1991. do 2004. godine

Zvanično, fudbalski klub Skonto je osnovan 1991. godine. Međutim istorija kluba počinje 1988. godine kada je trener Marks Zahodins određen da okupi studentski fudbalski tim u Rigi koji će predstavljati SSSR u okviru Univerzijade. Nakon što je Univerzijada završena, odlučeno je da tim nastavi sa radom sa ciljem da stvori igrače kadre da igraju u Letonskoj fudbalskoj ligi u okviru SSSR-a.
Kada su igrači prerasli juniorski uzrast nisu bili dovoljno spremni za ovakvo takmičenje. Ovaj sastav se dalje održao tako što je pozvan 1990. od strane letonskog Državnog univerziteta za fizičku kulturu da učestvuje na probnom Baltičkom prvenstvu nakon što su neke države SSSR-a već postale nezavisne. Na prvenstvu je učestvovalo 16 klubova (8 iz Litvanije, 6 iz Letonije, i po jedan iz Estonije i Rusije). Tim iz Rige je učestvovao kao univerzitetski tim pod imenom Daugava LVFKI. Taj naziv su dobili po reci Daugavi (Dvina) koja se uliva u Baltičko more u blizini glavnog grada  Rige. 

Godine 1991.  tim je ponovo promenio ime, ovog puta po sponzoru Forums Riga, jer na drugi način ovaj tim nije mogao da funkcionise iz razloga što je izašao iz okvira univerziteta. Pod tim imenom ovaj sastav je konačno počeo takmičenje u Letonskoj fudbalskoj ligi u okviru SSSR-a. Na tom takmičenju koje se završilo nakon što je Letonija iskoristila priliku da se otcepi od SSSR-a i povrati svoju nezavisnost 21.8.1991. ekipa Forumsa iz Rige osvojila je prvo mesto i tako postala prvi šampion Letonije od ponovnog osamostaljenja države. Ovaj šampionat je održan po čudnom sistemu takmičenja u kojem je učestvovalo čak 20 klubova.
Forums se odmah priključio novoformiranoj ligi nezavisne države Letonije, a decembra 1991. klub je zvanično formiran pod imenom Skonto. Naziv su dobili po tek osnovanoj kompaniji Skonto group, koja se pretežno bavi građevinskim radovima. Na mesto predsednika kluba postavljen je Guatis Indriksons, zaposlen u kompaniji Skonto group i bivši činovnik KGB-a. Ovaj biznismen i sportski radnik je pet godina kasnije izabran i na mesto predsednika Fudbalskog savez Letonije. Tokom svog mandata na čelu kluba, Indriksons je postao vlasnik 90 procenata akcija kluba.
U novoformiranom šampionatu fudbaleri Marksa Zahodinsa osvojili su prvo mesto nakon doigravanja protiv ekipe FK RAF jer su oba tima na kraju regularnog dela prvenstva imali isti broj bodova. Zahodinska 1992. godine na mestu trenera menja Aleksandrs Starkovs koji je sa Skontom osvojio 12 puta šampionsku titulu i 6 puta nacionalni Kup, nakon čega je trofejni trener preuzeo moskovski Spartak.
U periodu dominacije, Skonto je iznedrio mnogo fudbalskih reprezentativaca, a fudbaleri ponikli u ovom fudbalskom timu činili su okosnicu reprezentacije Letonije koja je učestvovala na Evropskom prvenstvu 2004. u Portugalu. Upravo 2004. Godine seriju šampionskih titula Skonta prekinuo je fudbalski klub Metalurgs iz Liepajasa.
Svoju, ispostaviće se kasnije, poslednju titulu šampiona Skonto je osvojio 2010. godine. Nakon toga, predsednik kluba Guatis Indriksons je prodao klub čečenskom biznismenu Bislanu Abdulmuslimovu, ali je ostao na mestu predsednika kluba sve do 2012. godine. Godinu dana nakon što je klub prodat, Indriksons je postao direktor kompanije Skonto group, a fudbalski klub Skonto je ponovo prodat, ovog puta ofšor kompaniji Tremova, registrovanoj na Kipru. Međutim, novi vlasnik nije ispunio očekivanja vezana za ulaganja, a klub je belezio gubitke.
Godine 2011. zbog neisplaćenih rata kredita, upravljanje stadiona Skonta preuzela je kompanija za restruktuiranje AS Reverta.
Pad Skonta iz Rige počinje 2012. godine kada je stupio na snagu Zakon o sprečavanju sukoba interesa u obavljaju javnih funkcija koji je usvojio letonski parlament na veliko insistiranje EU. Tako je Indriksons bio prinuđen da podnese ostavku na rukovodeće mesto u kluba jer je ujedno obavljao i funkciju predsednika fudbalskog saveza Letonije, a po zakonu to više nije bilo dozvoljeno. Na taj način je fudbalski klub Skonto ostao bez svog glavnog operativca.
Iste godine Skonto je osvojio svoj poslednji trofej nacionalnog Kupa pobedivši u finalu svoje velike dužnike, ekipu Metalurgs iz Liepajasa. Godine 2013. klub su napustili skoro svi sponzori i Skonto je zahvatila velika finansijska kriza. Igračima nisu isplaćene plate i premije. Neki od njih nisu imali strpljenja pa su preko suda tražili svoj zarađeni novac.
Već naredne godine klub je diskvalifikovan iz evropskih takmičenja iako su se plasirali u kvalifikacije za UEFA ligu Evrope osvojivši 2. mesto u šampionatu.  Za razliku od UEFE, Fudbalski savez Letonije, na čelu sa Indriksonsom  je dozvolio fudbalerima Skonta, dan pre početka prvenstva, da se takmiče u prvoj ligi. Ova sezona za Skonto je bila veoma mučna. Zbog neizmirenih obaveza prvo su im oduzeta 3 boda, da bi kasnije kazna bila smanjena na 2 boda. Zatim su im oduzeta još 4 boda zbog ponovnog neizmirenja obaveza. Do kraja šampionata nekako su uspeli da regulišu svoje finansijske obaveze i tim je uspeo da zauzme 2. mesto u šampionatu. Savez je izgleda sve pokušao da oživi klub...
Godine 2015. rukovodstvo kluba je nekako obezbedilo licencu za učešće u Ligi Evrope i tim je ponovo zauzeo 2. mesto u šampionatu. Ali zbog nastavka finansijskih problema Skonto je, odlukom fudbalskog saveza, izbačen u drugu ligu. Naredne sezone crveni iz Rige su prvi put od svog osnivanja igrali drugoligaški fudbal. Većina fudbalera je u međuvremenu napustila klub. A klub je jedva uspeo da se izbori za 8. mesto u Drugoj ligi.
Zbog velikih dugovanja, timu iz Rige je predložen stečajni postupak. Savez nije dao dozvolu Skontu za takmičenje u Drugoj ligi i klub je na taj način prestao da postoji.
Fudbalski klub Skonto je na neki način nastavio sa radom u saradnji sa PTU fudbalskim centrom, ali kroz omladinsku akademiju.
U prvom šampionatu Letonije od ponovnog osamostaljenja 1992. godine učestvovalo je 12 klubova. Danas nijedan od tih klubova više ne funcioniše.Na stadionu Skonta sada nastupa fudbalski klub Riga osnovan 2014. godine.

Moje lično mišljenje je da se fudbalski klub Skonto vratio svom prvobitnom obliku, onom obliku zbog kojeg je i nastao, a to je rad sa mladim igračima i takmičenje kroz fudbalsku akademiju.

Ukupno 15 puta je Skonto iz Rige bio šampion Letonije, a 8 puta je osvojio nacionalni Kup. Svoj najbolji rezultat u evropskim takmičenjima Skonto je ostvario u sezoni 1999/00 u kvalifikacijama  za Ligu šampiona gde su u trećem kolu kvalifikacija poraženi od londonskog Čelzija 0:0 i 0:3 prethodno eliminisavši šampiona Rumunije Rapid iz Bukurešta. Svoje učešće u evropskim takmičenjima su uglavnom završavali u prvom ili drugom kolu kvalifikacija.

Napoznatiji fudbaleri koji su igrali u klubu su: Bivši fudbaler Arsenala Igors Stepanovs, rekorder po broju utakmica za reprezentaciju Letonije Vitalijs Astafjevs, najbolji strelac kluba Mihails Miholaps, rekorder po broju golova za reprezentaciju Maris Verpakovskis, Marians Pahars bivši fudbaler Sautemptona, rekorder po broju utakmica za klub i poslanik Letonskog parlamenta Mihails Zemlinskis...

Nikola Radulović
translation/ prevod: Tea Besu

недеља, 06. август 2017.



(source: internet/ izvor: internet)

UTA is a football club from the Romanian city called Arad, located on the border with Hungary. UTA is currently competing in the second Romanian league. The "old lady" from Arad was the champion of its country six times (1947, 1948, 1950, 1954, 1969 and 1970), with two winning trophies of the National Cup (1948 and 1953).
The club was founded by the idea of Baron Francis von Neumann, the owner of a textile factory, a baker’s yeast and alcoholic beverage factory in Arad. In the 30s of the previous century, the rich Baron, a great fan of football wished to buy the AMEF football club from Arad. Having been rejected on several occasions, he decided at the end of the World War II, while Hitler was still in the bunker to found his own club.
According to Professor Dominique Tiros, the Baron held a meeting in April 1945, attended by a large number of his friends and people of trust. The proposal was to form a football club. Soon it was accepted for the club to be called UT (textile factory) Arad. According to a further lecture by the professor, the proposal for club colors was initially a green-white combination. However, his friends who attended the meeting insisted that the green and white colors are colors of the Nazis, so such a proposal was rejected, and finally Baron's proposal that the club colors should be red and white was accepted.

Why red-white?

Baron was a great fan of Arsenal. While he was in college of textile engineering in London, he often visited Arsenal matches in Habermi. He begin building the stadium with his own money, which, as he says will be: ”Just like Hebery just a bit smaller." When opened, UTA stadium was one of the most modern stadiums.
His textile factory in Arad was the most modern factory in Romania in that period. Baron hired engineers from Switzerland, England and Austria and in a short time he managed to double the production. The workers were satisfied. He brought in longer breaks, built a large number of houses for the employees near the factory, he made an ambulance, a canteen and a kindergarten. To advancement of Baron's factories during the war also contributed the policy of Romania's government top that approached to the Tripartite Pact. With this status, it was not difficult for him to attract the best players from the region and even three players from Hungary to his newly formed club.
The team advanced fast, as fast as the Red Army that entered Berlin. The Communists took power in Romania on March 6, 1945 and became the dominant political power under the direct control of the Soviet Union. Under the pressure of the communists the monarchy was abolished at the very end of 1947.
Baron Francisc spent in prison in eight full months during 1947 after which he was advised to emigrate. During 1948, nationalization took place and all the factories were taken away from him. Before emigration, Baron said "the factory is all right, UTA is a champion" and "you are free to choose the new factory management" and traveled to America through Austria and Switzerland. From that moment on, the club became state ownership.
After UTA eliminated the Dutch Feyendord in the Champions Cup in the season 1970/71, a telegram arrived to the address of the club, in which only "Bravo" was written and it was signed by Baron Francisc von Neumann. Today, after 70 years, UTA Stadium in Arad is named after its founder, Baron Francisc von Neumann.
From 1950 to 1957, the club changed its name to Flamura Rosie (Red Flag). In 1979, the downfall of the club from Arad began, starting with the relegation to the second league. Only in the 1990s UTA managed to return to the elite rank of the competition, but after only two seasons, the club moved again to the lower rank of the competition. In 2013, businessman Adrian Martan acquired most of the club's shares, promising to improve the financial situation of the club and to bring results. But he quickly lost the confidence of the fans and legends of the club and was asked to hand over the entire documentation of the club.
The club was finally disbanded in 2014 due to financial difficulties. However, with the help of the businessman, and also the former UTA player Marius Tucudeanu and the club's fans from Arad, the team re-started its way from the 4th Rang Competition called UTA Bantrana Doamna (UTA The old lady) and is considered as the official heritor of the disassembled club from 2014. UTA now records excellent results in the younger categories of the competition. The club is financially stable nowadays, financed mainly by sponsorship and city cash, as well as from the sale of footballers from the youth school. UTA is one of the most popular clubs in the country.

UTE fans were united in the group named Arad 1945 until 2016. And the only active group of fans is Out of Control. The most important rival of UTA is Polytechnic from Timisoara. It is popularly called the west derby. Both clubs will compete in the season 2017/18 in the second league and we should expect fierce duels.

P.S. I'll see you at Stiinta J

(source: internet/ izvor: internet)


UTA je fudbalski  klub iz rumunskog grada Arada, koji se nalazi na samoj granici sa Mađarskom. UTA se trenutno takmiči u Drugoj rumunskoj ligi. Ukupno 6 puta je ,,Stara dama“ iz Arada bila šampion svoje zemlje (1947, 1948, 1950, 1954, 1969. i 1970), uz 2 trofeja pobednika nacionalnog Kupa (1948. I 1953.).
Klub je osnovan po ideju Barona Francisca von Neumanna, vlasnika fabrike tekstila, fabrike kvasca i alkoholnih pića u Aradu. Još 30-ih godina proškog veka, bogati Baron, inače veliki zaljubljenik u fudbal, imao je želju da kupi fudbalski klub AMEF iz Arada. Pošto je u više navrata odbijen, odlučio je da krajem drugog svetskog rata, dok je Hitler još uvek bio u bunkeru, osnuje sopstveni klub.
Prema predanju profesora Dominika Tirosa, Baron je održao jedan sastanak, aprila 1945. godine, kojem je prisustvovao veliki broj njegovih prijatelja i ljudi od poverenja. Predlog je bio da se formira fudbalski klub. Ubrzo je prihvaćeno da se klub nazove UT (fabrika tekstila) Arad. Prema daljem predanju profesora, predlog za klupske boje u početku je bio zeleno-bela kombinacija. Međutim, na insistiranje prijatelja koji su prisustvovali sastanku da je zeleno-bela boja nacista, takav predlog je odbijen, a prihvaćen je Baronov predlog da klupske boje budu crveno-bele.

Zašto crveno-bela?

Baron je bio veliki navijač Arsenala. U periodu dok je bio na fakultetu tekstilnog inženjeringa u Londonu, često je posećivao utakmice Arsenala na Hajberiju. Svojim novcem započeo je izgradnju stadiona, koji će biti kako on kaže ,,isti kao Hajberi samo malo manji“. Kada je otvoren, stadion UTA je bio jedan od najmodernijih stadiona.
Njegova fabrika tekstila u Aradu je bila najsavremenija fabrika u Rumuniji u tom periodu. Baron je zaposlio inženjere iz Švajcarske, Engleske i Austrije i za kratko vreme uspeo je da udvostruči proizvodnju. Radnici su bili zadovoljni. Uveo je duže pauze, sagradio je veliki broj kuća za zaposlene u blizini fabrike, napravio je ambulantu, menzu i vrtić. Takvim napredkom Baronovih fabrika tokom rata doprinela je i politika državnog vrha Rumunije koja je pristupila Trojnom paktu. Sa takvim statusom, nije mu bilo teško da u svoj novoformirani klub privuče najbolje fudbalere iz regiona i čak tri igrača iz Mađarske.
Tim je brzo napredovao, podjednako brzo kao Crvena armija koja je ušla u Berlin. Komunisti su preuzeli vlast u Rumuniji 6.3.1945. godine i postali su dominantna politička snaga i pod direktnom kontrolom Sovjetskog saveza. Pod pritiskom komunista monarhija je ukinuta na samom kraju 1947. Godine.
Baron Francisc je proveo u zatvoru 1947. punih osam meseci posle čega mu je savetovano da emigrira. Tokom 1948. godine nastupila je nacionalizacija i sve fabrike su mu oduzete. Pre nego što je emigrirao Baron je rekao ,,fabrika je dobro, UTA je šampion“ i ,,slobodni ste u izboru novog rukovodstva fabrike“ i preko Austrije i Švajcarske otputovao je u Ameriku. Od tog trenutka klub je prešao u državno vlasništvo.
Nakon što je UTA eliminisala holandski Fejendord u Kupu šampiona u sezoni 1970/71, na adresu kluba je stigao telegram u kojem je pisalo samo ,,Bravo“, u potpisu Baron Francisc von Neumann. Danas, nakon 70 godina, stadion UTA u Aradu nosi ime po svom osnivaču Baronu Francisc von Neumannu.
Od 1950. do 1957. klub je promenio ime u Flamura Rosie (Crvena Zastava). Godine 1979. počinje strmoglavi pad kluba iz Arada, počevši ispadanjem u drugu ligu. Tek tokom 90-ih godina UTA je uspela da se vrati u elitni rang takmičenja, ali posle svega dve sezone ponovo su se preselili i niži rang takmičenja. Godine 2013. biznismen Adrian Martan stekao je većinu akcija kluba, obećavajući pritom da će popraviti finansijsku situaciju u klubu i da će donositi rezultate. Ali veoma brzo je izgubio poverenje navijača i legendi kluba i od njega je zatraženo da preda celokupnu dokumentaciju kluba.
Klub je konačno raspušten 2014. godine zbog finansijskih poteškoća. Međutim, uz pomoć biznismena, a ujedno i bivšeg fudbalera UTE, Mariusa Tucudeanua i navijača kluba iz Arada, tim je ponovo započeo svoj put od 4. ranga takmičenja pod nazivom UTA Bantrana Doamna (Stara dama)  i smatra se zvaničnim naslednikom rasformisanog kluba iz 2014. godine.
UTA danas beleži odlične rezultate u mlađim kategorijama takmičenja. Klub je danas finansijski stabilan, finansira se uglavnom od sponzorstva i iz gradske kase, kao i od prodaje fudbalera iz omladinske škole. UTA važi za jedan od najpopularnijih klubova u zemlji.

 Navijači UTE su bili ujedinjeni u grupu koja se zvala Arad 1945, do 2016. godine. A jedina aktivna navička grupa je Out of Control (Van kontrole). Najvažniji rival UTE je Politehnika iz Temišvara. Popularno se naziva i derbi zapada. Oba kluba će se takmičiti i u sezoni 2017/18 u drugoj ligi i treba očekivati žestoke duele.

P.S. Vidimo se na Stiinti J

FC UTA against Feyenoord/ FK UTA protiv Fejnorda
(source/ izvor: Nationaal Archief)

                                                       (source: internet/ izvor: internet)

Nikola Radulović
translation/ prevod: Tea Besu